Archive for the ‘Green Building’ Category

by T. Caine

There are a number of encouraging examples of cities trying to slowly evolve themselves into a vision of urban sustainability.

Implementing bike infrastructure, upgrading the ecology of alternative transit, increasing recycling and addressing the state of our energy production systems are all noteworthy efforts being tackled by numerous cities around the world. But despite the show of goodwill, there are other examples that force one to wonder if we are simply taking two steps back for each that we take forward. The city of Dubai, rising in defiance to the surrounding environment of coastal deserts in the United Arab Emirates, stands as the hallmark of a digressing trend taking us farther away from the goals of a new cultural reality. As a poster child of modern ingenuity driven by the perpetual desire of humanity for unbounded excess, the city of Dubai casts a long shadow over our path to a greener future.

Originally sited for its coastal access to shipping trade, the city has exploded infinitely from its historical size. With the discovery of oil in the mid 1960’s money flooded into the region, beginning to fill coffers that could one day be leveraged to lift life and prosperity out of the sands. Over the past quarter-century Dubai has fashioned itself as a temple to the unusual feats of how nature can be bested by humanity. Islands can be coaxed to rise from the sea. Mountains of snow can sit amidst lashing heat. The world’s tallest tower can sit in the sand and be visible for miles around.While the city lacks a Magic Kingdom, Epcot Center or its own Universal Studios, make no mistake–the creation is just another Disneyland, an attraction meant to draw people from around the world to be awed and impressed at the surreal.


Prone to sudden, heavy rains, sandstorms and hot, arid temperatures, the surrounding landscape has provided no shortage of reasons for why not to build a city in the desert, but the gait of the government-funded movement has been unfettered. The fact that sand is not the ideal medium for siting high-rise development did nothing to temper the race to build a current estimated stock of 43.6 million square feet of office space. One thing that natural ecosystems and capitalism have in common is a concept of supply and demand, equalizing forces that help balance population or production. Dubai, however, seemed to ignore such indicators given that according to Jones Lang LeSalle, the current vacancy rate for its commercial space is near 33%–a number that could rise as high as 65% with the new construction projects already in the pipeline. For comparison, the vacancy rate for office space in New York City was 11.1% in January and falling.

Of course, the crown jewel of Dubai’s high rise bonanza is Burj Khalifa, formerly known as the Burj Dubai and designed by architecture firm Skidmore Owings and Merrill. Towering 2,625 feet into the air, the building boasts the title of the tallest structure in the world. Amongst the 160 floors is a combination of residences, commercial office space, an observation deck and the Armani Hotel. Undeniably, the building is a testament to the capabilities of engineering. Getting glass and steel to stand a half-mile into the air in the middle of the desert is no easy task, one accomplished by using 110,000 tonnes of concrete to pour 192 piles that descend 540′ below the surface. Given the height of the building and high temperatures during the day, the pumping and pouring of the higher concrete floors was done at night where the curing process could be more gradual to avoid cracking and subsequent future instability. All impressive achievements, but necessary?

And yet within months of opening, the observation deck at the tower has already been closed to tourists indefinitely while precise reasons for the closure were unspecified. I found one tourist’s disappointment rather ironic. “It was the one thing I really wanted to see. The tower was projected as a metaphor for Dubai. So the metaphor should work. There are no excuses.’’ On the contrary, I think that the fact that the tower is a metaphor for Dubai is exactly why it does not work. It is a city destined to be punished for its misguided battle against an inexhaustible force: nature.


dubai villaA picture of water conservation

Unsurprisingly, there is not enough natural water to supply a city of over 2 million people in the desert. Instead taking such an impediment as cause for consideration, the city looked to the oceans. As of 2007, the city had a desalination capacity of 188 million gallons per day. Ocean desalination is a fleeting attempt at cheating the climate, requiring enormous amounts of energy. In her essay featured on The Oil Drum, former Mayor of Huntington Beach, CA, Deborah Cook notes that “The next worst idea to turning tar sands into synthetic crude is turning ocean water into municipal drinking water. Sounds great until you zoom in on the environmental costs and energetic consequences…There is no more energy intensive water source than ocean desalination.” It is important to note that Dubai residents are not exactly the image of conservation. With their swimming pools, fountains and lush green lawns, the emirate used 10% more water than the average American (formerly the largest consumer in the world) and six times more per capita than nearby Jordan as of 2009. Hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil and gas will be used to power these efforts in the years to come.

The World Wonders of Excess:

And then there are the islands. Oh, the islands. Construction began on the Palm Jumeirah island in June 2001. 94 million cubic meters of sands, 7 million tonnes of rock and $12 billion later, we have artificial islands in the shape of a palm tree. Eventually the island will be joined by the finished likenesses of Palm Deira and Palm Jebel Ali. At this point, Dubai World would not have to worry about being outdone by foreign endeavors (who else would build islands in the middle of the ocean) so they had to resort to trumping themselves. Started in 2003, the 300 world islands have risen from the waters only to halt in construction as Dubai developer Nahkeel recoils from $26 billion in debt.We can only hope it is never repaid.

world and palm islandsEach of these islands requires the dredging of the ocean floor to lift sand up onto its new home. The damage to the aquatic ecosystems in the form of waste, pollution and noise must be far-reaching. Not to mention we have already seen what can happen when people decide to build a city on a Louisiana swamp lying somewhere in the vicinity of sea-level. While the coast of Dubai may not be in a prime path for hurricanes, creating a series of islands against the natural correlation of water movement in the middle of the ocean is destined to have future problems of maintenance and structural issues. We are in a world where regardless of the fact that island nations are at risk of being eradicated due to rising sea levels, oil funds are put towards building new islands in the water.

Perhaps the only thing that can trump the world’s tallest tower and man-made islands is Ski Dubai, an interior ski resort fashioned right in the middle of the desert. The experience comes equipped with multiple trails, life-like snow, chair lifts and temperatures of -5 degrees Celsius. Once again, the structure is architecturally impressive due to the level of engineering required to keep snow from melting with outside temperatures as high as 50 degrees Celsius (that’s 122 degrees Fahrenheit.) The wall is actually a double-skin construction with two high-insulating layers separated by an air-gap that serves as a buffer for heat transmission. In theory the system is similar to a double-skin glass curtain wall like the one in One Bryant Park that faces the New York Public Library and holds small interior gardens. Nevertheless, it should have been enough to know that such a feat could be accomplished. There is no pride to be taken from achieving a luxury at a limitless cost of energy and resources.

As an oasis of extravagance built as a tourist trap, Dubai is a frightening reality. There is no better urban example of disregard to the environment as it resets the limit of how far from rational evolution we will travel before we decide to turn around and retrace our steps. This is not the example we should be setting for developing nations who may soon encounter the ability to craft their own cities in the landscape. I find any mention of “sustainability” linked to this city insulting and degrading. Such efforts are beyond simply “greenwashing,” but rather dipping a project in a vat of green tinted resin before dumping the waste into a landfill built over an aquifer.

But we can travel up 160 floors on elevators going 25mph to look out over a series of islands completed fabricated by humans! Aren’t you impressed? Quite simply, no. I already have the utmost of confidence in humanity’s abilities in science and technology without wasting $4 billion to make a giant spire in the desert. Perhaps there is a silver lining yet. Dubai’s very existence epitomizes the opposite of sustainability. Its logical course is destined for failure with 25% of its economy based on property and construction–a service that is limited and threatened by rising vacancies and a world recession. Such an urban downfall may help hit home the concept of such hollow endeavors and help justify the efforts of local cities to distance themselves away from new urban theme parks. Maybe the loss of billions of dollars in investment capital may help lenders not make the same mistake again when some group of innovators decide they want to build a resort at the bottom of the ocean or open golf course on the slopes of a volcano or plant a massive orange grove on the peaks of the French Alps.

Photo Credits: laughingsquid.com, kiwipulse.com



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Green building has become an immense industry with an intimidating amount of techniques and materials. The high cost of many of these “green” methods is a deal breaker for most of us.However one method, straw bale construction, is proving to save money during construction, provides energy savings once erected, and it seems anyone can learn to build with it.

Straw is one of the most renewable materials on the planet, and when it’s baled it becomes one of the best insulators as well. It is like building with giant malleable bricks, so with a good plan and design, you don’t have to be an expert contractor to build them. In fact, one single mother with no previous construction experience built one by herself for less than $50,000 and documented her journey on Youtube.

Straw bales? I know what you’re thinking. What about fires and bugs? One of the pioneers of modern straw bale building, Andrew Morrison of Strawbale.com, teaches courses and has written several books and articles on the subject.

He claims that fires in straw built homes are far less likely because of the density of the bale walls. It would be like trying to light a stack of phone books on fire. The density of straw bale homes make it even less likely to catch fire than traditionally built stick homes.

Morrison states about bugs and pests, “I understand the thought as the image of a stack of bales in a barn usually conjurs images of a few mice and a handful of bugs; however, bales in a wall are very different than bales in a barn. The biggest difference is that the walls are covered in plaster and stacked very tightly. The plaster is the first line of defense against pests. The thickness of the plaster makes it very hard for mice and bugs to get in. If they were to get in, they would have a hard time negotiating the tight bale network. A loose stack of straw allows for bugs and mice to move freely while the densely stacked walls resist the movement of such pests.”

Straw building has proven to be an ultra-green method that is not only effective and affordable, but also provides the rustic beauty of thick castle-like walls. And with proper instruction it can be done almost entirely by yourself. For more information check out Strawbale.com.

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Bamboo currently holds the title for the most renewable source of building material.   As a tree-like grass, most varieties of bamboo can grow 10 to 12 inches per day and reach full maturity within six years.  In fact, one could grow their own home, and many are beginning to do so with a seven-year plan as they prepare for retirement.  Bamboo also has many uses beyond home construction such as furniture design, fences, garden use, as well as being edible if treated, and has long been used in Asian medicine to cure infections.  It the ultimate sustainable material.

Bamboo has been used for thousands of years, and many structures throughout Asia are evidence that a bamboo construction can last for hundreds of years when designed properly.  According to tests conducted by one of the world’s leading bamboo engineers, Jules Janssen, bamboo has been shown to have twice the compressive strength of concrete and nearly the same tensile strength-to-weight ratio as steel.  One company based in Costa Rica properly calls themselves Vegetable Steel  www.vegetablesteel.com.  Bamboo is far superior to wood in that it will bend without breaking, making it a much more sound choice in seismically active regions (though it is important to properly finish with mortar to overcome lateral forces).  Proper design by builders such as Simon Velez in Colombia have proven to be fully resistant to earthquake’s registering 7.5 plus.  This finding was dramatically enhanced by the 500 reported deaths from the falling concrete of many surrounding homes.

Bamboo is even more sustainable in production.  Production systems throughout Asia and Central America show that very little infrastructure is required, keeping personnel requirements to a minimum.  Every step of production utilizes the natural components of the plant, beginning with a suitable location for the grove.  Bamboo is a natural processer of water and nutrients, which enables it to offset the waste from farms, sewage treatment plants and industrial processes.  A grove can also be used to combat soil erosion, or as a natural cooling mechanism, as groves have been shown to develop their own microclimates through the process of transpiration.

Unfortunately, the timber industry still rules the roost in the United States, but there is hope that the rise of interest in sustainable development will apply ample pressure to insist on admitting bamboo technology to the Uniform Building Code.  Bamboo is the logical choice to enhance not only the structural strength, but also to enhance the strength of local communities by reducing dependence on industrial systems.

The following Web site provides a wealth of additional detail about bamboo construction and general green building techniques.


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In a previous post, “The Goals of Green Building,” I touched on the fact that concrete has the highest embodied energy of any traditional building material.  Actually, concrete itself has an inherently low embodied energy, but it is the most widely-used material in existence, thus producing a high net effect of emissions.  So widespread is the use of concrete, that nearly 2 tons is produced for every person on the planet.  Concrete is undoubtedly a better choice than fossil fuel-derived materials, but when one considers the transportation costs (fossil fuels) involved in the shipment of blocks to building sites, it is clearly not a sustainable product.

The earth holds the answer, and innovative green builders have created the technology to offer a sustainable alternative that is poised to revolutionize building.  The use of Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) seems to have originated in the 1950s in South America, but not until the 1980s did many European countries provide standards which enabled widespread acceptance and use.  Now, American builders like Jim Hallock www.earthblockinc.com/ are leading the way with their use of the latest technology for on-site production.  One company has been making machines for 20 years, and is now in 70 countries, with over 2,000 machines in operation.


* Clearly the number one benefit to CEB is that it is cost and energy efficient by reducing wait time through on-site production using local materials with no need for transport, and capitalizing on thermal mass which allows for heat retention in winter and heat release in summer.

* CEB structures are virtually soundproof and are thus ideal for urban environments, also providing these environments with more pleasing aesthetics and increasing overall temperature stability.

* Earth blocks are strong, always exceeding 1,000 PSI.  CEB constructions will last centuries vs. today’s several-decades maximum.

* Use of available and abundant materials.  The three components of sand, clay, and aggregate material can be found at just about any construction site.  The earth that is moved is put to use instead of wasted, or ending up as runoff into local rivers and streams.

Beyond the integrity of the material itself, CEB also provides an ease of production and use that has enabled it to grow as a solid choice in the Third World.  Recently I had a chance to speak with Wayne Byrd from Eco-Bloques who has brought his operation to Costa Rica, where I live.  He was clearly enthusiastic about the production end of his business, but spoke equally about providing jobs and helping local communities.  Construction methods are simple, providing opportunity for unskilled labor and community involvement.  Furthermore, concrete block and rebar is the standard in places like Costa Rica due to it being in a seismically active region.  The durability of CEB has been widely used in places like California, and has proved to be superior to its concrete counterpart.  It is a perfect choice for all warmer climates, and certainly the tropics, as it provides pest and mold resistance that is essential for humid areas.  Clearly this is an exciting time for sustainable building.

*For developers who would like more information about how to save money, do what is right for the environment, and be the first to use this new system please contact me:

Michael Anthony


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Irresponsible development and population growth are major contributing factors to the rapid destruction of our ecosystem.  Fortunately, there is an increasing awareness of the need to reduce the environmental impact caused by traditional development models.  The green building model aims to build in harmony with nature by using natural materials that provide both an aesthetically beautiful structure while ultimately producing an economic benefit for the green homeowner.

The Green Building Resource Center highlights why a powerful movement is required to combat our traditional construction methods.  Our building construction, use, demolition, and the manufacturing of building materials contribute significantly to environmental problems.  In the U.S. buildings account for:

* 36% of total energy use

* 65% of electricity consumption

* 30% of greenhouse gas emissions

* 30% of waste output

* 12% of potable water consumption

And, a typical 1,700 square foot wood-frame home requires the equivalent of clear cutting one acre of forest.

This overall consumption is reflected in the “embodied energy” of materials.  This is defined as the amount of energy required to make a product.  LEED uses a rating system to assess the environmental impact of traditional materials; the higher the number the more energy required to produce a kilogram of product.

* Concrete:  220

* Steel:  140

* Plastic:  140

* Masonry:  100

* Ceramic:  80

* Plaster:  60

* Glass:  50

* Wood:  35

* Copper:  25

* Aluminum:  20

The goal of sustainable building is to create a design which will enhance the overall efficiency of a home’s key systems:  energy, water management, and building materials.  When these key systems are working properly overall cost is reduced through increased productivity.  The use of renewable resources such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy is of paramount importance to achieve the goal of minimizing the lifecycle impact of home construction.

Renewable building materials such as bamboo and straw, recycled stone and compressed earth block offer reduced embodied energy.  The design of the home also can offer energy savings thorough simple techniques such as proper window and awning placement and effective use of trees to reduce energy demands.

A final key component to green building is location.  While it is certainly possible to reduce the impact of any home in any region of the world, there is growing interest in the tropical areas of the world that lend themselves naturally to green architecture.  Countries like Costa Rica, with a supportive government structure and large amounts of protected land possess natural energy in abundance and already derive most energy needs from renewable resources.  Furthermore, the climate reduces many of the obstacles that green builders face in the northern climates.

The sustainable building model is a logical choice as our world faces ever-increasing energy demands.  Worldwide interest is growing which is pushing better technologies at a lower cost.  The once prohibitive pricing of sustainable homes is now within reach of almost anyone.

For more information on how you can reduce the cost of your current home, or techniques for building a new home visit the U.S. Green Building Council.

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